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MAKATEA Excellent Wavefront Imaging Camera

WAVEFRONT IMAGING Camera for Wavefront Microscopy

  • Wavefront Image
  • Snapshot Camera
  • 400-900 nm Spectral Range
  • 2048 x 2048 Viewing Resolution
  • 680 x 680 Wavefront Resolution
  • External Trigger Input
  • USB3.0
  • 10 Bits



With a long experience in Image Sensor Functionalization, SILIOS technologies recently undertook the development of custom Wavefront Imagers for Microscopy based on commercial CMOS sensors and is now offering an off-the-shelf Cross-grating Wavefront Imaging Camera for microscopy applications: the MAKATEA wavefront imager.

Cross-grating microscopy (CGM), also known as QLSI (Quadriwave Lateral Shearing Interferometry), is a wavefront microscopy technique capable of mapping a wavefront profile with high sensitivity (<1 nm), and high spatial resolution (reaching the diffraction limit). QLSI was invented and patented in 2000 by J. Primot et al. (ONERA).

The MAKATEA wavefront imaging camera can be easily implemented in the port of inverted optical microscopes and has been designed for the high-precision characterization of samples such as:
– Living Cells (1): neurons & neurites, organelles, vesicles, bacteria, eukaryoptic cells, algae, yeast, archaea, virus, …
– Nanophotonics objects: nanoparticles, 2D-materials, metasurfaces, nanowires, …

(1) The MAKATEA wavefront imaging camera is particularly valuable for single-cell dry mass measurements, from a single image acquisition. Indeed during its life, the dry mass of a cell, i.e., the mass of all cellular content except water, is deeply modified. These changes are related to all the metabolic and structural cell functions. The study of dry mass consequently provides crucial insights into cellular aspects, such as the cell cycle, the impact of stimuli or drugs, as well as cell metabolism. This knowledge proved valuable for studying individual cell or cell populations.

In terms of applications, the quantitative nature of the measurements enables:
– Quantitative phase imaging, speckle-free,
– Measurement of the biomass of single living cells with a sub-pg precision, and dry mass density (pg/µm²),
– Birefringence imaging,
– Mapping of the complex optical polarizability of nanoparticles,
– Mapping of the complex refractive index of graphene and other 2D materials,
– Temperature microscopy,
– Mapping the wavefront profiles of metasurfaces,
– Single-shot phase-fluorescence imaging,
– Surface roughness/topography characterization at lambda/1000


Very Compact Wavefront Camera

The MAKATEA Wavefront imager is specially designed to allow high integration. This small footprint (60x40x26mm) camera can be easily integrated onto any optical microscope. Made by hybridization of a specific micro-optical element onto a commercial 4.2 MPixel CMOS Sensor, it allows imaging both the intensity and the the wavefront image of a scene.

MAKATEA Excellent Wavefront Imaging Camera

MAKATEA 400-900 nm

Wavefront Image example of a cell (Sepia colorscale)
MAKATEA Excellent Wavefront Imaging Camera
Video example of a cell division – data in pg/micron² (3DJet colorscale)


Wavelength range400-900 nm
Microscope compatibilityAny microscope equipped with a standard camera input port
CMOS Sensor
Sensor native resolution2048 x 2048 (4.2MP)
Sensor pixel pitch5.5 microns
Sensor area11.26 x 11.26 mm²
Wavefront Image
Wavefront image definition680 x 680 (possible 2048×2048 resolution for viewing)
Spatial resolution16.5 microns
Sensitivity< 1 nm RMS
Wavefront Camera
Camera max frame rate90 fps
Wavefront live frame rate~10-15 fps (depeding on the PC configuration)
Bit depthUSB 3.0
External trigger inputYes
Lens adapterC-type or CS-type
Dimensions60 x 40 x 26 mm
Weight< 100 g

Software Development Kit (SDK)

WaveFront LAB

WaveFront LAB is the SDK for the SILIOS WFI cameras. It allows : 

1) Displaying the raw, wavefront, gradiant and transmitance image

2) Displaying the regular and the restored full-size images

3) Two mode of calculations one fast based on Fourier Transformation and one more accurate based on Sylvester equation.

WaveFront LAB runs with real time acquisition but can also run with recorded single image or series of images (“replay mode”).

​​WaveFront LAB supports any of the SILIOS cameras and recognizes each plugged one via its S/N number. The specific spectral data of the corresponding WFI sensor are then used for treatments.

WaveFront LAB is supplied for free with any purchased multispectral WFI.

WaveFront LAB is available for C/C++ and Python.

MAKATEA Excellent Wavefront Imaging Camera


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